Friday, November 18, 2005


A Germanic tribe whose military incursion into Roman Italy was thrust back in 101 BC. Forced out of what is now Denmark by overpopulation and the encroaching sea, the Cimbri pushed southward, eventually swelling in numbers by the addition of their allies the Teutoni and other tribes. They scored victories over the Romans in 113, 109, and 107. Following a particularly devastating Roman

Sunday, October 16, 2005

Berber Languages

Also called  Berbero-Libyan languages,   group of languages that make up one of the constituent branches of the Afro-Asiatic (formerly Hamito-Semitic) language family; the other branches are Egyptian, Semitic, Cushitic, and Chadic. The Berber languages are spoken in scattered areas throughout northern Africa from Egypt westward to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Niger River northward to the Mediterranean

Wednesday, July 27, 2005

Caudata, Size range and diversity of structure

The most typical salamanders are short-bodied, four-legged, moist-skinned vertebrates about 100 to 150 millimetres (about 4 to 6 inches) long. The tail is usually about as long as the body. There is much variation in size, and terrestrial salamanders range from 40 to nearly 350 millimetres, with a few exceeding 1 metre (39 inches) in length. Members of most species live in moist places on land

Monday, July 25, 2005

Spooner Amendment

Filipinos fought the imposition of American rule, and it was believed in the United States that their

Saturday, July 23, 2005


Town, north central Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, on the Rio Cacheu. It is a market centre for the agricultural products of the interior; peanut (groundnut) cultivation, concentrated around the town, is mainly for export, and cattle are raised for domestic consumption in the northern savannas of the region. There are phosphate deposits near the town. Farim is connected

Friday, July 08, 2005


Gum resin prized as a condiment in India and Iran, where it is used to flavour curries, meatballs, and pickles. It has been used in Europe and the United States in perfumes and for flavouring. Acrid in taste, it emits a strong onionlike odour because of its organic sulfur compounds. It is obtained chiefly from the plant Ferula foetida of the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae).

Wednesday, July 06, 2005


Franz Michael, The Origin of Manchu Rule in China (1942, reprinted 1965), a concise, basic survey of the historical development of the beginning Manchu empire, includes information about Dorgon; Fang Chao-ying, “Dorgon,” in Arthur W. Hummel (ed.), Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period, 1644–1912, vol. 1, pp. 215–219 (1943), is a short biography.